Discover biology 6th edition pdf

 

    Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Anu Singh-Cundy received her PhD from Cornell Discover Biology (Sixth Edition) - Kindle edition by Anu Singh-Cundy, Gary Shin. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or. Discover Biology (Sixth Edition), ,,, ,,,, . Discover Biology, Sixth Edition Anu Singh-Cundy Gary Shin. Discover Biology develops scientific literacy through active learning: before, during, and after class.

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    Discover Biology 6th Edition Pdf

    1 Discover Biology SIXTH EDITION Anu Singh-Cundy • Gary Shin Discover Biology SIXTH EDITION CHAPTER 1 The Nature of Science and the Characteristics. Access Discover Biology 6th Edition solutions now. Our solutions are written by Chegg experts so you can be assured of the highest quality!. Discover Biology 6th Core Edition by Anu Singh-Cundy – (eBook PDF) Textbooks. $ $ Version: PDF. If you need EPUB and MOBI Version, please.

    We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you! Published by Kelly Carpenter Modified over 3 years ago. Any extra content—that is, content not found in the textbook—is identified by enclosing the relevant notes within square brackets [like this]. Generally, the extra content notes explicate supplementary photographs, graphs, or line drawings that are not found in the printed or electronic version of the textbook and are therefore unique to these PowerPoint slides. Or Just Another Microbe in the Mud? Because of their common evolutionary origin, all living organisms share certain key characteristics. Science and the citizen 1. The claim: Mono Lake bacterium has arsenic instead of phosphorus in its DNA! Are you convinced?

    The data support the hypothesis, but do not demonstrate that fish consumption is the cause of the better heart health enjoyed by those who eat fish often. The correlation between fish consumption and better heart health could be a spurious correlation. In a spurious correlation, a third variable, such as higher income, is the real cause of the observed correlation. Percent high school grads entering college Source: Department of Labor Statistics [The link between rising college enrollments and the trend in global warming is an example of a spurious correlation.

    The third, or confounding, variable that best explains this link is simply modern times, which have witnessed increased industrialization across the world and greater access to education in many developed countries. The upper graph shows percentage of U. Because the United States has one of the highest college dropout rates in the industrialized world, only about 46 percent of those who enroll actually graduate with a college degree.

    Is global warming driving young people to college? In a controlled experiment, at least two groups are compared, with the treatment group experiencing a change in one variable, whereas that variable is constant for the control group.

    In a controlled experiment, the investigator measures the value of a specific variable for at least two groups of study subjects.

    The groups must be comparable in all respects except that one group is exposed to a change in the selected variable, while the other group is not.

    Typically, the researcher obtains a sufficiently large number of study subjects and assigns them randomly to at least two groups. Randomization helps ensure that the groups are comparable to start with. One group, the control group, is maintained under a standard set of conditions with no change in the variable under study.

    The other group, known as the experimental or treatment group, is maintained under the same standard set of conditions as the control group, but is manipulated in a way that changes the selected variable. In a well-designed experiment, the control and treatment groups are as similar to each other as possible and all variables, other than the selected variable, are held constant.

    Heart disease mortality Control Treatment 22 A Controlled Experiment to Test the Health Benefits of Fish Oil Supplements Study subjects: 2, men diagnosed with heart disease, randomly assigned to control or treatment group Control group: not directed to alter diet in any way Treatment experimental group: asked to take mg of fish oil daily Heart disease mortality Figure 1.

    The men in the treatment group were asked to take mg of fish oils, whereas the men in the control group were not directed to alter their diet in any way. Conclusion: The experimental data support the hypothesis 23 In an Experiment, the Independent Variable Is Manipulated in the Treatment Group The variable that the investigator manipulates in an experiment is called the independent variable. Typically, there is only one independent variable in an experiment, and all other variables are kept constant as much as possible.

    The independent variable is altered only for the treatment group not for the control group. The dependent variable is a variable that can potentially change when the independent variable is altered. The goal in an experiment is to measure how a change in the independent variable changes the value of the dependent variable; the dependent variable is not expected to change in the control group.

    In conducting a scientific experiment, an investigator typically manipulates a single variable, known as the independent variable or manipulated variable. Any variable that responds, or could potentially respond, to the changes in the independent variable is called the dependent variable or responding variable. If we think of the independent variable as the cause, then the dependent variable is the effect.

    Cadets in the three treatment groups ate a snack bar containing — milligrams of caffeine. Those in the control group ate a snack bar that tasted the same but contained no caffeine. At the time of the test, neither the trainees nor the investigators knew whether a test taker belonged to the treatment group or the control group. Independent variable This is the cause. In a double-blind study, neither the subjects nor the investigator knows who is receiving the treatment and who is a control subject.

    The placebo effect is the potentially false feeling in a study participant that he or she has benefited from the experimental treatment. When a hypothesis is refuted, it must be reexamined and then changed or discarded.

    Because a hypothesis could be refuted when subjected to a different test, no hypothesis can be proved beyond all doubt. One would have to know everything about everything to be certain that every test that can ever be devised will always support a certain hypothesis.

    Such certainty, of course, is not possible.

    Discover Biology 6th Core Edition by Anu Singh-Cundy – (eBook PDF)

    For example, what if those who eat a lot of fish also eat less saturated fat, and it is lower fat consumption that protects against fatal heart disease rather than fish consumption per se?

    A single black swan can refute the hypothesis that all swans are white. Application of this theory, through such measures as a scrupulous hand washing, cut death rates in hospital wards by half in the late nineteenth century.

    Cell theory: all living organisms are composed of one or more cells. Many different types of cells can be found in the body of an adult human. Evolution by natural selection: natural variables may favor individuals with certain inherited traits over individuals that lack those traits, and as a result the favored traits become more common in the succeeding generations.

    A population of E. Anthropogenic climate change theory: global warming, caused at least in part by human actions, has changed the climate of our planet. The average global temperature of Earth has increased by at least 10C in the past years. The range of some species has shifted northward in Europe and North America.

    They have such power to predict outcomes that we can base our everyday actions on them. A scientific fact is simply a true statement because it can be demonstrated directly and repeatedly. The mechanisms by which evolution occurs, such as natural selection, are theories that biologists have very high confidence in; however, these mechanistic explanations are theories, not facts, because typically the mechanisms themselves cannot be observed directly and in a reasonable time frame.

    That a population can evolve is a fact because we can demonstrate the evolution of bacterial resistance in a dish of bacteria within a week. A cell is a self-contained unit enclosed by a water-repellent layer called the plasma membrane. A bacterium is an example of a single-celled organism. Multicellular organisms are composed of many different kinds of specialized cells working together.

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    In plant and animal cells, DNA is stored within a membrane-bound nucleus. A gene is a segment of DNA that codes for a specific genetic trait inherited characteristic.

    Consider this claim: space aliens are among us, but because of their advanced extraterrestrial technology, humans cannot detect them. There is no way to test this hypothesis, and there is no way to show it to be false either. Descriptive and analytical studies report information data that can be used to build and then test a hypothesis. Scientists use mathematical tools such as statistics to estimate the reliability of data.

    Statistics is a mathematical science that uses probability theory to estimate the reliability of data. Correlation means two variables behave in an interrelated manner: the value of one variable predicts the value of the other variable. The data support the hypothesis, but do not demonstrate that fish consumption is the cause of the better heart health enjoyed by those who eat fish often.

    The correlation between fish consumption and better heart health could be a spurious correlation. In a spurious correlation, a third variable, such as higher income, is the real cause of the observed correlation. Percent high school grads entering college Source: Department of Labor Statistics [The link between rising college enrollments and the trend in global warming is an example of a spurious correlation.

    The third, or confounding, variable that best explains this link is simply modern times, which have witnessed increased industrialization across the world and greater access to education in many developed countries. The upper graph shows percentage of U.

    Discover Biology SIXTH EDITION

    Because the United States has one of the highest college dropout rates in the industrialized world, only about 46 percent of those who enroll actually graduate with a college degree. Is global warming driving young people to college? In a controlled experiment, at least two groups are compared, with the treatment group experiencing a change in one variable, whereas that variable is constant for the control group.

    In a controlled experiment, the investigator measures the value of a specific variable for at least two groups of study subjects. The groups must be comparable in all respects except that one group is exposed to a change in the selected variable, while the other group is not. Typically, the researcher obtains a sufficiently large number of study subjects and assigns them randomly to at least two groups.

    Randomization helps ensure that the groups are comparable to start with. One group, the control group, is maintained under a standard set of conditions with no change in the variable under study.

    The other group, known as the experimental or treatment group, is maintained under the same standard set of conditions as the control group, but is manipulated in a way that changes the selected variable. In a well-designed experiment, the control and treatment groups are as similar to each other as possible and all variables, other than the selected variable, are held constant.

    Heart disease mortality Control Treatment 22 A Controlled Experiment to Test the Health Benefits of Fish Oil Supplements Study subjects: 2, men diagnosed with heart disease, randomly assigned to control or treatment group Control group: not directed to alter diet in any way Treatment experimental group: asked to take mg of fish oil daily Heart disease mortality Figure 1. The men in the treatment group were asked to take mg of fish oils, whereas the men in the control group were not directed to alter their diet in any way.

    Conclusion: The experimental data support the hypothesis 23 In an Experiment, the Independent Variable Is Manipulated in the Treatment Group The variable that the investigator manipulates in an experiment is called the independent variable. Typically, there is only one independent variable in an experiment, and all other variables are kept constant as much as possible.

    The independent variable is altered only for the treatment group not for the control group. The dependent variable is a variable that can potentially change when the independent variable is altered. The goal in an experiment is to measure how a change in the independent variable changes the value of the dependent variable; the dependent variable is not expected to change in the control group.

    In conducting a scientific experiment, an investigator typically manipulates a single variable, known as the independent variable or manipulated variable. Any variable that responds, or could potentially respond, to the changes in the independent variable is called the dependent variable or responding variable. If we think of the independent variable as the cause, then the dependent variable is the effect.

    Cadets in the three treatment groups ate a snack bar containing — milligrams of caffeine. Those in the control group ate a snack bar that tasted the same but contained no caffeine. At the time of the test, neither the trainees nor the investigators knew whether a test taker belonged to the treatment group or the control group.

    Independent variable This is the cause. In a double-blind study, neither the subjects nor the investigator knows who is receiving the treatment and who is a control subject. The placebo effect is the potentially false feeling in a study participant that he or she has benefited from the experimental treatment. When a hypothesis is refuted, it must be reexamined and then changed or discarded. Because a hypothesis could be refuted when subjected to a different test, no hypothesis can be proved beyond all doubt.

    One would have to know everything about everything to be certain that every test that can ever be devised will always support a certain hypothesis. Such certainty, of course, is not possible.

    For example, what if those who eat a lot of fish also eat less saturated fat, and it is lower fat consumption that protects against fatal heart disease rather than fish consumption per se? A single black swan can refute the hypothesis that all swans are white. Application of this theory, through such measures as a scrupulous hand washing, cut death rates in hospital wards by half in the late nineteenth century.

    Cell theory: all living organisms are composed of one or more cells. Many different types of cells can be found in the body of an adult human. Evolution by natural selection: natural variables may favor individuals with certain inherited traits over individuals that lack those traits, and as a result the favored traits become more common in the succeeding generations.

    A population of E. Anthropogenic climate change theory: global warming, caused at least in part by human actions, has changed the climate of our planet. The average global temperature of Earth has increased by at least 10C in the past years.

    Discover Biology (Sixth Edition) | RedShelf

    The range of some species has shifted northward in Europe and North America. They have such power to predict outcomes that we can base our everyday actions on them. A scientific fact is simply a true statement because it can be demonstrated directly and repeatedly. The mechanisms by which evolution occurs, such as natural selection, are theories that biologists have very high confidence in; however, these mechanistic explanations are theories, not facts, because typically the mechanisms themselves cannot be observed directly and in a reasonable time frame.

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